Magalimoto amagetsi si magalimoto okha. Ndi mabatire akulu.


Joe Biden ndi wodzinenera “munthu wamagalimoto.” Posachedwapa, iye wakhala galimoto yamagetsi munthu. Ndipo akufuna kuti anzake aku America akhalenso anthu oyendera magetsi. Mayendedwe ndi udindo kwa 29 peresenti ya mpweya wotenthetsera mpweya waku US, komanso mfundo zanyengo za Biden, zomwe cholinga chake ndi kupanga chuma cha net-zero ku US pofika 2050, pang’ono zimatengera anthu aku America kusintha magalimoto ndi magalimoto oyendetsedwa ndi gasi kupita kumagetsi.

Koma Biden akuthamangira m’misewu. Pomwe bipartisan infrastructure bill adasaina kukhala lamulo mu Novembala kuphatikiza ndalama zopangira ma EV charger theka la miliyoni m’dziko lonselo, Bili ya Build Back Better yomwe ikadaphatikizirapo masauzande a madola pamisonkho yothandizira anthu aku America kugula magalimoto amagetsi pano. adayimitsidwa mu Senate monga a Democrats amayesa kupeza mgwirizano womwe umakhutiritsa Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV), yemwe wakana kusaina mu mawonekedwe ake. Vuto linanso ndi momwe aku America amaonera ma EV poyerekeza ndi magalimoto achikhalidwe: Lipoti la 2021 Pew Research Center lidapeza kuti 51 peresenti ya akuluakulu aku US amatsutsa lingaliro loti achoke. kupanga magalimoto oyendera petulo ndi magalimoto.

Ndiye zidzatengera chiyani kuti apangitse anthu ambiri kukumbatira ma EV? Yankho limodzi likhoza kukhala loti aliyense aganizirenso zomwe ma EV ali. Anthu ambiri aku America, kuphatikiza a Biden, amalankhula zamagalimoto amagetsi ngati njira zoyendera – zomwe ndizomveka, chifukwa ali ndi ma mota ndi mawilo ndipo amatifikitsa. Koma ndizochulukirapo kuposa magalimoto: ndi mabatire, ndipo mabatire ali ndi ntchito zopitilira mayendedwe. Zachita bwino, kuphatikiza ma EVs m’magulu aku America kungathandize kupewa kuzimitsa magetsi, khazikitsani gridi yamagetsi yaku US yomwe ikusweka, ndi kupanga mphamvu ya dzuwa ndi mphepo kukhala magwero odalirika a mphamvu kwa anthu ambiri. Chinthu choyamba ndikusiya kuganiza za magalimoto amagetsi monga magalimoto omwe amapezeka ndi mabatire, ndipo m’malo mwake amawawona ngati mabatire omwe amapezeka mkati mwa magalimoto.

Kukafika kumeneko sikudzakhala kophweka. “Maganizidwe amtunduwu amatha kukhala ovuta chifukwa ndikusintha kwenikweni,” atero a Sam Houston, katswiri wofufuza wamkulu ku Union of Concerned Scientists, bungwe lopanda phindu lokhazikika pa sayansi ku Massachusetts. M’mbiri, magalimoto akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kamodzi kokha ku America: kutenga anthu ndi katundu kuchokera kumalo ena kupita kwina. Kunja kwa kugawana kukwera, magalimoto amangotumikira eni ake. Magalimoto ambiri oyendera gasi amathera nthawi yambiri titakhala kunyumba kapena kuntchito. Koma magalimoto amagetsi amatha kuchita zambiri ngati sakuyenda.

“Zomwe tikuyenera kufikako sikuti tikungoganizira za magalimoto oyendera komanso gululi kuti zithandizire magalimotowo, koma ndi ubale wopindulitsa pakati pa ma gridi ndi magalimoto,” a Houston adauza Recode. Mwachitsanzo, adawonetsa mphamvu zongowonjezedwanso: Chimodzi mwazovuta zazikulu pakuphatikiza mphamvu zongowonjezwdwa mu gridi ndikuti sizodziwikiratu. Nthawi zina pangakhale zambiri mphepo ndi mphamvu ya dzuwa, ndi palibe njira yabwino yosungira kuchuluka. M’malo mwake, mphamvu zowonjezera zowonjezera nthawi zambiri zimawonongeka osagwiritsidwa ntchito. Magalimoto amagetsi, a Houston adati, atha kukhala njira yothetsera vutoli.

Galimoto yosiyidwa pa charger m’malo oimikapo magalimoto muofesi mkati mwa tsiku lantchito, mwachitsanzo, imatha kuwongolera nthawi yolipiritsa kuti mphamvu zambiri kapena zonse zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kulipiritsa galimotoyo zimachokera kumalo ongowonjezedwanso, kugwiritsa ntchito bwino mphamvu zoyera zomwe mwina sizingakhalepo. kupita kuwononga.

Kuchulukirachulukira kolipiritsa kungathandize kuti kuphatikiza ma EVs mu gululi kukhala zenizeni.
Zithunzi za Drew Angerer / Getty

Ma EV amathanso kukhala othandiza pagululi ngakhale mulibe mphamvu zoyera. Akatswiri opanga magetsi akusintha kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zikuyenda mu gridi kuti zitsimikizire kuti magetsi akupangidwa ndikuperekedwa pafupipafupi. Kupanga magetsi ochepa kwambiri kuti akwaniritse zofunikira ndi chimodzi mwa zifukwa zodziwikiratu za kuzimitsidwa kwa magetsi, koma mochuluka mphamvu ndi nkhani yaikulu. Magalimoto amagetsi amatha kuchita ngati masiponji pamikhalidwe imeneyo, adalongosola Kyri Baker, pulofesa wothandizira wa engineering ku yunivesite ya Colorado Boulder komanso membala wa Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

“Ngati muli ndi ma EV ambiri angokhala pamalo oimikapo magalimoto, amatha kulipiritsa kapena kusiya kulipiritsa kuti asinthe pang’ono popereka komanso kufunikira kokwanira kuti asunge pafupipafupi,” Baker adauza Recode. M’malo mongowalipiritsa mabatire kuti angodzaza, magalimoto omwe amakhala pa charger kwa nthawi yayitali amatha kudikirira kuti azilipiritsa mpaka gululi ikufunika kuthandizidwa kuchotsa mphamvu zochulukirapo, kapena amatha kusunga gawo lina lamagetsi. mabatire awo kuti athandizire kuwongolera pafupipafupi.

Ndicho chiyambi chabe. Chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu zogwiritsa ntchito mabatire a EV amachokera ku lingaliro lotchedwa bidirectional charging, kapena kutumiza magetsi kuchokera mu EV kuti azilipiritsa zinthu kuyambira zida zamagetsi pamalo omanga mpaka nyumba zonse panthawi yazimitsidwa.

Izi ndizosangalatsa kwambiri munthawi yanthawi zambiri komanso yovuta kwambiri kuzimitsidwa chifukwa cha nyengo yoipa: Eni eni a EV atha kupeza mphamvu kunyumba panthawi yamagetsi polumikiza galimoto yawo mu charger mnyumba mwawo – ndipo izi zitha kuthetsa kufunikira kwa magetsi. nthawi zina zakupha, kutulutsa mpweya wa carbon monoxide majenereta a dizilo omwe anthu ambiri amadalira pakali pano.

Opanga magalimoto amagetsi akuyamba kugwiritsa ntchito lingaliro ili ngati malo ogulitsa. Magalimoto amagetsi a Volkswagen adzatero thandizo Kulipiritsa kwapawiri kuyambira chaka chino, ndipo Ford yomwe ikubwera F-150 Lightning, mtundu wamagetsi wagalimoto yotchuka kwambiri mdziko muno, ndi zopangidwa kuti athe kuyendetsa nyumba yonse mpaka masiku atatu. An malonda oyambirira kwa F-150 Lightning, yotulutsidwa pafupifupi miyezi itatu pambuyo pa mndandanda wa mvula yamkuntho ku Texas adatulutsa mphamvu kwa mamiliyoni ndikupha mazana ambiri m’boma mu 2021, adawonetsa zidziwitso zagalimotoyo: Itha “kukuthandizani kumanga nyumba yanu,” wofotokozerayo adati, “ndipo ngati pakufunika kutero, mphamvu nyumba imeneyo.”

Kutsatsa kukuwoneka kuti kukugwira ntchito; kuyambira Disembala, anthu pafupifupi 200,000 anali atayitanitsatu F-150 Mphezi. “Zaka khumi zapitazo sindikanaganiza kuti Ford ikazimitsa magetsi a F-150, ndipo sindikadaneneratu kuti ndi anthu angati omwe akanayitanitsa, makamaka m’madera akumidzi komanso osamala,” adatero Baker. “Kusintha kwanyengo kukugunda kulikonse ku US, kotero kaya mumakhulupirira sayansi kapena ayi, mukufuna kuteteza banja lanu. Kukhala ndi batire lalikulu lomwe lingakhale jenereta yosunga zobwezeretsera ndi njira imodzi yochitira izi. ”

Purezidenti Joe Biden, atavala magalasi ake oyendetsa ndege ndipo manja ake ali pachiwongolero, akuyang'ana ojambula atolankhani kuchokera pampando woyendetsa galimoto ya F-150 Lightning.

Purezidenti Biden adatenga Mphezi ya F-150 kuti azungulire paulendo wopita kumalo oyesera a Ford ku Michigan Meyi watha.
Nicholas Kamm/AFP kudzera pa Getty Images

Sikuti opanga magalimoto onse ali otseguka kuti azilipiritsa maulendo awiri monga Ford ndi Volkswagen. Mabatire amagalimoto amagetsi ndi mitundu yayikulu ya mabatire a lithiamu-ion omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito m’mafoni ndi laputopu, ndipo amawonongeka pakapita nthawi monga momwe mabatire amafoni athu amachitira – zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mtundu wa EV udzachepa pakapita nthawi. Magalimoto ambiri amagetsi amabwera ndi zitsimikizo za batri zomwe zimasokonekera ngati mabatire atulutsidwa kuti apange mphamvu zina, mwa zina chifukwa kuyitanitsa nthawi zonse ndikutulutsa batire kumatha kupangitsa kuti iwonongeke mwachangu.

Baker sada nkhawa kwambiri zakuwonongeka ngati ena omwe ali mumakampani. “Nthawi zonse ndikakambirana ndi anthu pazachangitsa pawiri, kukankhira kumbuyo kumakhala kuti kumasokoneza batire,” Baker adauza Recode. “Koma ngati muyang’ana mmene anthu ku United States amasinthira magalimoto awo kaŵirikaŵiri, sindikuganiza kuti zimenezo zidzakhala chipika. Pankhani ya moyo wa galimotoyo, ndikuona ngati tikuphulitsa mopanda malire.” Anthu aku America amakonda kusunga magalimoto awo 12 zaka pafupipafupi, ndipo magalimoto amagetsi nthawi zambiri amalowa pamsika wamagalimoto ogwiritsidwa ntchito kalekale mabatire awo amawona kuwonongeka kwakukulu.

Ndipo mabatire amatha kukhala othandiza ngakhale atawonongeka kwambiri kuti asagwiritsidwe ntchito m’magalimoto. A Houston adauza a Recode kuti amaonedwa kuti ndi odetsedwa kwambiri akangotha ​​kusunga pafupifupi 80 peresenti ya mphamvu zoyambira, zomwe zikadali mphamvu zambiri. “Tiyenera kudziwa momwe tingagwiritsire ntchito ndikubwezeretsanso momwe galimotoyo ikatha ndipo batire ikhoza kukhala ndi mphamvu zambiri,” adatero Houston.

Njira imodzi yotheka – ndi chifukwa china chowonera ma EV ngati ochulukirapo kuposa magalimoto – ndikuti mabatire akale a EV amatha kuchotsedwa pamagalimoto ndikugwiritsa ntchito kusunga mphamvu za dzuwa ndi mphepo. Lingaliro ili likuwoneka kale: Kuyambitsa kotchedwa B2U Storage Solutions kwakhazikitsa malo osungirako mphamvu ku California omwe amasunga mphamvu zokwanira 160 zogwiritsidwa ntchito. Mabatire a Nissan Leaf kulamulira nyumba zoposa 90 patsiku. Ndi Hyundai kuyanjana ndi kampani yopanga mphamvu zoyendera dzuwa ndi kampani yothandiza ku San Antonio, Texas, kuti ikhazikitse malo omwewo.

Chotsatira chodziwikiratu, Baker akuti, ndikuthetsa zovuta zowonongeka ndi kubwezeretsanso nthawi imodzi mwa kukhazikitsa njira zomwe zingalole eni eni a EV kuti asinthe mosavuta mabatire awo akale mofanana ndi momwe mungasinthire batri mu foni yanu. Mabatire owonongekawo amatha kutumizidwa kumalo osungiramo mphamvu monga ku California.

Pankhani yaukadaulo, kubwezeretsanso mabatire a EV kuti asagwiritse ntchito paulendo ndikosavuta kukhazikitsa, adatero Mike Jacobs, katswiri wamkulu wamagetsi ku Union of Concerned Scientists. Chingwe chomwecho chomwe chimapereka mphamvu ku EV chitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutulutsa mphamvu kuchokera mu batri ndikuigwiritsa ntchito kulimbikitsa nyumba. Koma ndizovuta kwambiri zikafika pa mfundo za mphamvu ndi kayendetsedwe ka zinthu ku US. Nyumba zambiri zilibe mawaya kuti alandire mphamvu zosunga zobwezeretsera kuzimitsidwa – Webusayiti ya Ford yomwe ili ndi chenjezo loti mphamvu zosunga zobwezeretsera zitha kugwira ntchito “pamene kunyumba ili ndi zida zokwanira” ndi chosinthira chomwe chimadula nyumbayo pagululi. Ndipo monga momwe mbali zambiri za gridi yamagetsi yaku US sizinakhazikitsidwe kuti ziphatikize mphamvu ya dzuwa ndi mphepo kuti zizigwira ntchito pafupipafupi, ilibe zida zotengera mphamvu zamagalimoto amagetsi zikafunika.

Vuto lalikulu, Jacobs adauza Recode, ndikuti makampani opanga zida akhala akulamulira mphamvu mdziko muno, ndipo sakufuna kusiya mphamvu zawo zenizeni komanso zofananira. “Zimabweranso ndi chidwi chazomwe mungagwiritse ntchito kuti zithetse,” adatero Jacobs. “Ndipo ngati pali phindu lililonse kuti awononge nthawi.” Mwanzeru, zikuwoneka kuti palibe chifukwa chomwe chida chingafunikire kutero.

Chimodzi mwazitsanzo zodziwika bwino zamagwiritsidwe ntchito opangira mphamvu ku US zimachokera ku mapanelo adzuwa, Baker adauza Recode. Kuti atetezeke kwa oyang’anira magalimoto awo, othandizira amakhazikitsa mabwalo m’nyumba zambiri kuti azingotseka mumdima, ngakhale mphamvu zosunga zobwezeretsera zilipo. “Ngati muli ndi solar padenga, mwayi ndi woti, gridi yazimitsidwa, sola yanu yapadenga silingathe kuyatsa nyumba yanu,” adatero Baker. “Ili ndi vuto lalikulu chifukwa anthu amagula solar akuganiza kuti azimanga nyumba zawo nthawi yazimayi.” Kuti apange denga ladzuwa – ndi mphamvu zosunga zobwezeretsera kuchokera ku ma EV – kugwira ntchito nthawi yazimitsa, Baker adalongosola, eni nyumba amayenera kuyatsa mapanelo awo ndi ma charger a EV pagawo losiyana ndi mphamvu zoperekedwa ndi zida, zomwe ndi lingaliro lokwera mtengo lomwe limathetsanso maubwino ophatikiza mabatire a EV mu gridi.

Koma ife tiribe kupanga chisankho pakati pa gridi ndi mphamvu zosunga zobwezeretsera kuchokera ku mabatire a EV: Atha kukhala limodzi, ndipo kuwaphatikiza moyenera kumatha kukhala ndi vuto lalikulu pakutulutsa. “Tekinoloje ili pano,” adatero Houston. “Ndi nkhani yophwanya malamulo ndi zopinga zoyendetsera ntchito.”

Kuphwanya zotchinga izi kungathandize kupanga kusintha kwamalingaliro m’mene timaganizira za kupanga magetsi, monganso kugwiritsa ntchito magalimoto athu monga mabatire kungasinthe paradigm. Magalimoto amagetsi sali njira yamatsenga yothetsera vuto lathu lanyengo – pali magwero ambiri a mpweya wowonjezera kutentha kunja kwa magalimoto, ndipo kuchepetsa mpweya wamayendedwe kumapita mpaka pano ngati ma EV athu apeza mphamvu kuchokera kumafuta opangira mafuta. . Koma kuthekera kwawo kumapitilira kupitilira mawilo awo, ndipo anthu aku America ambiri pozindikira kuti zitha kutanthauza zambiri angasankhe kusinthana ndi magetsi. Kupulumutsa dziko lapansi kudzafuna kusintha kwakukulu, kolimba mtima; kugula batire yomwe imangochitika kuti ipereke mayendedwe ndi chithandizo chosowa chomwe anthu angachite kuti athetse vuto la nyengo.

“Ndipo zoona zake,” akutero Jacobs, “tikanena za kusiya mafuta oyaka, zonsezi ndizofunikira.”



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