Kodi Chilankhulo Chatsopano Ndi Chiyani?


Chithunzi cha nkhani yotchedwa What & # 39; s the Newest Language?

Fanizo: Vicky Leta / Gizmodo

Kodi zilankhulo zapadziko lapansi zikafika paphwando lodyera, ndani amakhala pagome la ana? Pomwe achiarabu ndi achi China amakhala m’mipando yawo, olemedwa ndi kulemera kwazaka zambiri, zilankhulo zomwe zikadali panja, pachimake, kusangalala usiku wa chilimwe Tamil asanawauzenso kuti alowemo? Kuyika mopanda tanthauzo, chilankhulo chatsopano kwambiri ndi chiti? Za sabata ino Giz Akufunsa, tidafikira akatswiri angapo kuti tidziwe.


PhD yaposachedwa m’zilankhulo kuchokera ku The Graduate Center, CUNY, yomwe tsopano ili ku Malmö, Sweden. Kafukufuku wake akuwunika kwambiri za prosody, matchulidwe, komanso zolembedwa zomwe zili pachiwopsezo. Ali nawo adathandizira kale ku Gizmodo.

Ngakhale osaphatikiza ma conlangs (zilankhulo zomangidwa mwadala monga Esperanto kapena Chiklingon), zilankhulo zatsopano zimapangidwa nthawi zonse, nthawi zambiri mumikhalidwe iwiri. Yoyamba ndi pamene mwana wogontha amakulira m’malo omvera kwambiri. Zikatero, chilankhulo chasaina chotchedwa ‘homeign’ chimayamba pakati pa mwanayo ndi mamembala akumva am’deralo. Zizindikiro zakunyumba izi sizingakhale zovuta monga galamala kapena kukhazikika monga zilankhulo zamanja zokhazikitsidwa, koma zitha kutero. Nkhani yolembedwa bwino kwambiri ndi Chinenero Chamanja cha ku Nicaragua, chomwe chimayambira pagulu la ophunzira osamva omwe adalowa sukulu limodzi mu 1980 ndi zina mwazomwe adalemba kunyumba. NSL tsopano ikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu masauzande, kuphatikiza omwe adaigwiritsa ntchito koyambirira, omwe akadali ndi moyo. Chilankhulo Chamanja cha Al-Sayyid Bedouin chilinso ndi zaka zosakwana zana, ndipo chidakonzedwa m’chigawo cha Negev ku Israel, komwe kumakhala anthu ogontha kwambiri. Chilankhulochi chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu osamva komanso akumva m’deralo.

Zina zomwe zimayambitsa zilankhulo zatsopano kupanga mwachilengedwe ndikukhala ndi mapasa. Ana amapasa (kapena abale kapena alongo atakwanitsa zaka) amakhala nthawi yayitali limodzi amakhala ndi zomwe zimatchedwa ‘zilankhulo zodziyimira pawokha’. Mosiyana ndi zolembera kunyumba, zilankhulozi sizikhala ndi mwayi wokulira ndikukhazikika, chifukwa ana omwe amazigwiritsa ntchito nthawi zambiri amaphatikizika mchilankhulo cha mabanja awo / mdera lawo. Chimodzi mwazilankhulo zodziyimira pawokha chidalankhulidwa ndi June ndi Jennifer Gibbons, amapasa awiri obadwa mu 1963 ndipo adaleredwa ku Wales. Mapasawo anali okhawo akuda mdera lawo ndipo amasalidwa ndi anzawo. Pomwe amapasawo amalankhulanso Chingerezi, pomwe amayamba kudzipatula amasiya kuyankhula ndi anthu ambiri, kumangolankhula chilankhulo chawo. Akuti anali ndi mgwirizano wopitiliza kulankhula chilankhulo chawo mpaka mmodzi wamapasa atamwalira. Ngakhale adakhazikitsa mabungwe mobwerezabwereza kuyesera kulekanitsa mapasawo ndikuwaphatikiza kuti akhale olankhula Chingerezi, mgwirizano wawo udachitika mpaka pomwe a Jennifer Gibbons amwalira mu 1993, pomwe Juni adayambiranso kulankhula Chingerezi. Ngakhale nkhani yawo yawonetsedwa pazosangalatsa komanso zofalitsa zowona zenizeni, chilankhulo chawo chodziyimira pawokha sichinawonekere chilankhulo chilichonse.

Kupatula pazilankhulo izi, palinso zochitika pomwe zilankhulo ‘zofananira’ zimapangidwa ndikukhazikitsidwa ndi maboma. Mwachitsanzo, zilankhulo zomwe timadziwa kuti ‘Chitaliyana’ ndi ‘Chijeremani’ zimalankhulidwa m’malo omwe sanali ogwirizana pandale kapena zilankhulo. Ngakhale kutengera zolankhula zazilankhulo za Italic ndi Chijeremani zomwe zidalipo kale, Chitaliyana kapena Chijeremani chomwe mungaphunzire m’buku ndi mawonekedwe omwe mwanjira ina amakhala ‘omangidwa’ ndikuyika madera omwe ali ndi zilankhulo zamderali, zomwe zimatchedwa ‘diglossia’. Chitsanzo chaposachedwa ndi Bahasa Indonesia, yomwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ku Indonesia mu 1945. Chilankhulochi ndi Chimayiki, monga zilankhulo zambiri zaku Indonesia, ndipo padakali diglossia pakati pa Bahasa Indonesia ndi zilankhulo zachi Malawi masiku ano.

Ziyankhulo zina nthawi zambiri sizingathe kugawidwa ngati ‘zatsopano’ motsutsana ndi ‘zakale’ popeza zilankhulo zonse zimasintha pang’onopang’ono m’kupita kwa mibadwo, motero kumakhala kovuta kusankha mfundo imodzi munthawi yake ‘yoyambira’ ‘Chilankhulo chatsopano’ chomwe chimatchulidwa kwambiri ndi Chiafrikana, chomwe chimasiyana kwambiri ndi Chidatchi kuyambira m’zaka za zana la 18. Koma zilankhulo zonse zimasiyana, ndipo mzere womwe pali kusiyana kokwanira kwapangitsa kuti kuyitanira mtundu umodzi ‘chilankhulo chatsopano’ sikudziwika bwinobwino. Nthawi zina mzerewu umanenedwa ngati mitundu iwiriyo sinalinso ‘yomvana bwino’, ngakhale olankhula Chidatchi / Chiafrikaans amatha kumvana wina ndi mzake mpaka pamlingo wina. Ndiye pali milandu ngati Chidanishi, yomwe olankhula ku Norway / Sweden amalimbana nayo kuti amvetsetse, koma omwe amalankhula amatha kumvetsetsa bwino Chinorway / Sweden. Popeza kusintha kwachangu ku Danish kwachitika ngakhale mzaka 100 zapitazi, mwina Chidanishi chamakono ndichilankhulo ‘chatsopano’. Ngati mukufuna ‘chilankhulo chatsopano’ mutha kupeza buku lowerengera, kubetcha kwanu kopambana mwina ndi Indonesia, Afrikaans ndi Danish.

Pulofesa ndi Director of Graduate Study, Linguistics, UCLA

Mwanjira ina, kuyesera kuzindikira chinenero chatsopano kwambiri kuli ngati kuyesa kuzindikira nyama yatsopano kwambiri — iwo ndi anthawi zonsekusintha kwakusintha, ndikuwonetseratu bwino tanthauzo lina kuchokera ku linzake. Onjezerani kuti chidziwitso chakuti chilankhulo ndichikhalidwe chantchito ndipo ntchitoyo imakhala yovuta kwambiri.

Izi zati, zitsanzo ziwiri zimabwera m’maganizo.

Yoyamba imakhudza zilankhulo zomangidwa. Izi zimaphatikizapo akatswiri ambiri azilankhulo kuti asonkhane ndikupanga zilankhulo zatsopano. Chitsanzo chotchuka chaposachedwa ndi chilankhulo cha Na’vi, chopangidwa ndi Paul Frommer, katswiri wazolankhula ku USC Avatar. Klingon ndi chitsanzo china. Anthu omwe amachita izi ndi zazikulu, zazikulu kwambiri, ndipo amalowamo. Ziyankhulo ndizokwanira kwambiri.

Koma pazabwino kapena zoyipa, pali zochepa zochepa pomwe zilankhulo zatsopano zadzikhalira zokha, ndipo izi zimandibweretsa ku chitsanzo changa chachiwiri: Chinenero Chamanja cha ku Nicaragua (Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua).

Kwenikweni, moyo wa ana ogontha ku Nicaragua chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1900 sunali wabwino — munalibe anthu ammudzi, mulibe chilankhulo, ndipo nthawi zambiri mumakhala kunyumba. Mutha kukhala ndi zikwangwani zamtundu wina ndi achibale anu, koma simungakhale ndi njira yolumikizirana kunja kwake.

Izi zidasintha kumapeto ‘70s ndi kumayambiriro ‘Ma 80 ndi kusintha kwa Sandinista. A Sandinista adayika patsogolo maphunziro osamva kwa ana ogontha, ndipo adayamba kuyendetsa ana osamva m’masukulu osamva kumene. Ndipo ana awa – omwe adakanidwa chilankhulo moyo wawo wonse – amangodzipangira okhaily adapanga NSL. Mofulumira, chilankhulocho chinachokera ku mtundu wa pidgin kapena chilankhulo cha ana kupita pachilankhulo chokwanira. Ndi imodzi mwa nkhani zosangalatsa kwambiri m’mbiri yazilankhulo.

Wophunzira wa PhD, Linguistics, UCLA

Kuyesera kuzindikira ‘zaka ‘ za chilankhulo ndi ntchito yovuta chifukwa zilankhulo zambiri zimasintha nmwachilengedwe, motero mutha kubwerera mmbuyo ndi kumbuyo ndikubwerera ndikuwona chilankhulo chikusintha pang’ono ndi pang’ono osaneneratu tsiku loyambira. Mwachitsanzo, Chingerezi chamakono chidachokera ku Old English, chomwe chidachokera ku Proto-Germanic, chomwe chidachokera ku Proto-Indo-European, ndi zina zambiri.

Koma nthawi ndi nthawi, chilankhulo chikuwoneka kuti chimabwera munthawi yapadera kwambiri. Chilankhulo chimodzi chotere chomwe chimachita izi ndi chilankhulo chomangidwa; ndiye kuti chilankhulo chomwe chidapangidwa mwadala. Timawona zilankhulo zomangidwa munyuzipepala nthawi zonse, ndipo zambiri zomwe timazidziwa ndizamakono ndipo ndizosavuta kupezeka: Chikilingoni chidapangidwa mu ‘Zaka makumi asanu ndi zitatu za chimodzi mwa Star ulendo makanema, ndipo Dothraki adapangidwa posachedwa kwambiri Masewera amakorona. Popeza aliyense amatha kupanga chilankhulo chawo nthawi iliyonse (makamaka, pali gulu lalikulu la ‘conlangers ‘), Ziyankhulo zatsopano zimabadwa nthawi zonse. Koma, ngati tikufuna kulankhula zilankhulo zachilengedwe zokha, pali zitsanzo zina zochepa za zilankhulo zomwe zili ‘wobadwa. ‘

Chilankhulo cholumikizirana ndi chomwe chimabadwa kudzera kulumikizana pakati pa zilankhulo ziwiri kapena zingapo. Zilankhulo zimalumikizidwa nthawi zonse, ndipo timatha kuwona zotsatira zake ngakhale mu Chingerezi, chomwe chili ndi mawu ambiri obwerekedwa kuchokera kumawu ena: taco yochokera ku Spain, tsunami yochokera ku Japan, ndi khofi, pamapeto pake kuchokera ku Chiarabu. M’Chingerezi chamakono, kulumikizana kwapangitsa kuti mawu abwereke, koma nthawi zina zilankhulo zomwe zimalumikizidwa zimathandizira kwambiri, osati m’mawu okha komanso galamala, kuti chilankhulo chomwe sichimadziwika sichidziwika kwa omwe amalankhula zinenero zoyambira. Chitsanzo ndi Michif, Chilankhulo Chosakanikirana cholankhulidwa ndi anthu ena a Métis ku Western Canada ndi North Dakota. Michif ndiosakanikirana chifukwa maina ake ndi kapangidwe kake amachokera makamaka ku French, pomwe zenizeni zake ndi kapangidwe kake zimachokera ku Cree. Chilankhulo chotere chikabadwa, titha kuyerekezera kuti chidayamba liti mosadodometsa ngati kusakanikirana kwa zilankhulo ziwirizi kutchulidwa bwino; kwa Michif, mwina adapanga chara yakecteristic French / Cree adagawika nthawi ina koyambirira kwa ma 1800, ndikuyiyika pakati padziko lapansi ‘zatsopano ‘ zinenero …

ngati tikufuna kuzindikira chilankhulo chomwe chidachitika posachedwa popanda kumangidwa mwadala komanso osasinthika kuchokera kuzilankhulo zina, Chilankhulo Chamanja cha ku Nicaragua chimakwanira bwino bilu, monga ndikudziwira.

Woyang’anira wamkulu wa Canadian Language Museum

Othandizira akuwoneka kuti akupanga zilankhulo zatsopano nthawi zonse, koma sizinthu zonse zomwe zimazika mizu ndikufalikira. Ndikayika voti yanga ya Toki Pona, yomwe ndi yatsopano ndipo ikuwoneka ikukula. Idapangidwa ndi katswiri wazilankhulo ku Canada Sona Lang mu 2001 ndipo adakulitsa m’buku lake la 2014 Toki Pona: Chilankhulo cha Zabwino. Dikishonale ya Toki Pona idatulutsidwa mu Julayi watha.

Wogwirizira ndi munthu amene amapanga chilankhulo — ndiko kuti, chilankhulo chomangidwa, chilankhulo chopangidwira cholinga china. Chilankhulo chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mwina ndi Chiesperanto, chilankhulo chomwe chidapangidwa mu 1887 kuti chithandizire kulumikizana pakati pa oyankhula ochokera padziko lonse lapansi. Zinenero zambiri zimapangidwa ngati gawo lalingaliro, monga chilankhulo cha Chiklingon chomwe chidapangidwira Star ulendo, ndi Elvish, chimodzi mwazilankhulo zambiri zomwe zidapangidwa ndi JRR Tolkien. Zilankhulozi ndizosiyana ndi zinenedwe zomwe zimapangidwa mwapadera kwazaka zambiri kuchokera pazokambirana pakati pa oyankhula ambiri.

Toki Pona akufotokozedwa bwino ndi wopanga Sonja Lang: ‘Toki Pona ndi chilankhulo cha anthu chomwe ndidapanga mu 2001. Kunali kuyesa kwanga kumvetsetsa tanthauzo la moyo m’mawu 120. Tsopano pali oyankhula masauzande ambiri ndi mawu 137 ofunikira. ‘ Toki Pona ndiye kuti ndiye chilankhulo chatsopano kwambiri, koma ndiye chilankhulo chokhala ndi mawu ochepa kwambiri. Ndi chilankhulo chomwe chimakakamiza chidwi chokhazikika, kuti mufotokozere tanthauzo lanu ndi zida zosavuta. Titha kuziwona ngati zotsutsana ndi Chingerezi, chomwe chili ndi mawu akulu kwambiri pachilankhulo chilichonse padziko lapansi.

Kodi muli ndi funso loyaka moto la Giz Asks? Titumizireni imelo ku [email protected]



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